Strength: The amount of stress and material can withstand
Yield: The maximum stress a material can endure before plastic deformation.
Ultimate: Maximum stress a material can withstand during a tensile test
Tensile load propagate cracks while compressive ones do not.
Ductility: The amount of plastic deformation a material can undergo before fracture.
If the material breaks at a low strain level with virtually no plastic deformation, it is said to be brittle. There is no transition point between ductility and brittleness. Temperature can change the ductility of a material.
Toughness: The amount of energy a material can absorb before fracture.
It can be calculated as the area under the stress/strain curve.
Most applications operate in the elastic region. So resilience is analogue to toughness on the elastic region only.