# ISWM Weights and Measures Tables

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AVOIRDUPOIS OR COMMERCIAL WEIGHT
1 gross or long ton (l. tn.) = 2240 pounds
1 net or short ton (sh. tn.) = 2000 pounds
1 long hundred weight (l. cwt.) = 112 pounds
1 short hundred weight (sh. cwt.) = 100 pounds
1 pound (lb.) = 16 ounces (oz.) = 7000 grains (gr.)
1 ounce (oz.) = 16 drams (dr.) = 437.5 grains
APOTHECARIES’ WEIGHT
1 pound (lb. ap.) = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce (oz. ap.) = 8 drams = 480 grains
1 dram (dr. ap.) = 3 scruples = 60 grains
1 scruple (s. ap.) = 20 grains
METRIC EQUIVALENTS AVOIRDUPOIS OR COMMERCIAL WEIGHT
1 long ton = 1.016 metric ton = 1016 kilograms
1 short tun = 0.9072 metric ton = 907.2 kilograms
1 pound av. = 0.4356 kilograms = 453.6 grams
1 ounce av. = 28.35 grams (g)
1 grain (gr.) = 0.0648 gram (g)
TROY WEIGHT
1 pound (lb. t.) = 12 ounces = 5760 grains
1 ounce (oz. t.) = 20 pennyweights = 480 grains
1 pennyweight (dwt.) = 24 grains
METRIC WEIGHT
1 metric ton (t) = 1000 kilograms
1 kilogram (or kilo) (kg) = 1000 grams = 10 hectograms
1 hectogram (hg) = 100 grams = 10 dekagrams
1 dekagram (dkg) = 10 grams
1 gram (g) = 10 decigrams
1 decigram (dg) = 10 centigrams
1 centigram (cg) = 10 milligrams (mg)
AVOIRDUPOIS EQUIVALENTS OF METRIC WEIGHT
1 ton (metric) = 0.9842 long ton = 2204.6 pounds av.
1 ton (metric) = 1.1023 short ton = 2204.6 pounds av.
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds av. = 35.274 ounces av.
1 gram = 0.03527 ounces av.
1 gram = 15.432 grains
TROY AND APOTHECARIES’ WEIGHTS EQUIVALENTS IN AVOIRDUPOIS AND METRIC WEIGHT
1 pound Troy or apothecaries’ = 0.82286 pounds avoirdupois = 373.2 grams
1 ounce Troy or apothecaries’ = 1.09714 ounce avoirdupois = 31.103 grams
1 grain Troy or apothecaries’ = 1 grain avoirdupois = 0.0648 gram
1 pound avoirsupois = 1.21528 pound Troy or apothecaries’
1 kilogram (kg) = 0.911458 ounce Troy or apothecaries’
1 gram (g) = 0.0322 ounce Troy or apothecaries’
MEASURES OF LENGTH
1 mile (mi.) = 1760 yards = 5280 feet = 1.609 kilometers
1 yard (yd.) = 3 feet = 36 inches = 0.9144 meter
1 foot (ft.) = 12 inches = 304.8 millimeters
1 inch (in.) = 25.4 millimeters
1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meter
1 meter (m) = 10 decimeter = 3.2808 feet = 39.37 inches
1 decimeter (dm) = 10 centimeter = 3.937 inches
1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeter (mm) = 0.3937 inches
FLUID POWER EQUIVALENTS / EXACT EQUIVALENTS
1 U.S. gallon = 231 cubic inches
= 4 quarts or 8 pints
= 128 ounces (liquid)
= 133.37 ounces (weight)
= 8.3356 pounds
= 3.785 liters
1 imperial gallon = 1.2 U.S. gallons
1 Liter = 0.2642 U.S. gallons
1 cubic foot = 7.48 gallons
= 1728 cubic inches
= 62.4 pounds (water)
= 760 mm Hg
1 Cu. ft. water = 62.4 pounds
1 Bar at sea level = 14.504 PSI
Approx. 1/2 PSI decrease each 1000 foot of elevation
1 “Hg = 0.490 PSI
= 1.131 ft. water
1 horsepower = 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute
= 550 ft. lbs. per second
= 42.4 BTU per minute
= 2545 BTU per hour
= 746 watts or 0.746 kw
1 PSI = 2.0416 “Hg
= 27.72 ” water
= 27.71 bar
1 Atmosphere = 1.013 bars
= 29.921 “Hg
= 14.696 PSI
= 760 mm Hg
1 Foot water column = 0.432 PSI
1 Foot oil column = 0.354 PSI
1 Barrel oil = 42 gallons
1 Micro-meter (micron) = 0.000001 meter
= 0.001 centimeter
= 0.00004 inch
25 Micro-meters = 0.001 inch
FLUID POWER EQUIVALENTS / APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS
1 Pint = 2 cups
2 cups = 32 tablespoons
32 tablespoons = 96 teaspoons
96 teaspoons = 16 fluid ounces
16 fluid ounces = 1 lb.
1 Quart = 4 cups
4 cups = 2 pints
2 pints = 32 fluid ounces
32 fluid ounces = 2 pounds
1 Gallon = 16 cups
16 cups = 4 quarts
4 quarts = 8 pints
8 pints = 128 fluid ounces
128 fluid ounces = 231 cubic inches
1 Cup = 16 tablespoons
16 tablespoons = 48 teaspoons
1 Tablespoon = 3 tsp.
3 tsp. = 1/2 fluid ounce
1 Fluid oz. (volume) = 600 drops hydraulic oil
1 Cubic inch = 330 drops (oil)
 FLUID POWER ABBREVIATIONS abs absolute (as in psia) A-C alternating current Bhn Brinell hardness number Btu British thermal unit C degrees Centigrade (Celsius) cc closed center ccw counter clockwise cfm cubic feet per minute cfs cubic feet per second cir cubic inches per revolution cim cubic inches per minute com common cpm cycles per minute cps cycles per second cu.in/rev cubic inches per revolution cw clockwise cyl cylinder dia diameter ext external F degrees Farenheit fl fluid fpm feet per minute ft foot ft-lb foot pound gal gallon gpm gallons per minute Hg Mercury HP horsepower Hz Hertz ID inside diameter in inch in-lb inch pound int internal ipm inches per minute ips inches per second lb pound max maximum min minimum mtd mounted NC normally closed NO normally open NPT national pipe thread NPTF dryseal pipe threads oc open center oz ounce P.O. pilot operated press pressure psi pounds per square inch psia psi absolute psig psi gauge pt pint qt quart r radius rms root mean square rpm revolutions per minute rps revolutions per second scfm standard cu. ft. per minute Smls seamless sol solenoid SSU Saybolt seconds universal SUS Saybolt universal seconds u micro-meters or microns T torque vac vacuum VI viscosity index visc viscosity